zaterdag 24 november 2012

Guru Tegh Bahadur ji's - upholding the principle of freedom of conscience

Guru Tegh Bahadur ji's Sacrifice 

"Do not frighten anyone nor be afraid of anybody"

This event happened long before the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) guaranteed every one right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. It was also much before the establishment of Western democracies. The Guru carried the conviction more than three hundred years ago, when religious intolerance and persecution were common all over the world that every individual must have the freedom to worship the faith of his or her choice.

Guru Tegh Bahadur lived at a time when even personal laws were oppressive and the right to worship as per one's choice was denied, culminating in an atmosphere of fear and severe backlash. Guru Tegh Bahadur became the spiritual head of the Sikhs just at the time when the Mughal Emperor of India , Aurangzeb, was imposing Islam on the people.
He had no tolerance for other religions and proceeded on a brutal campaign of repression. Aurangzeb closed down Hindu schools, demolished temples or turned them into mosques, charged non-Muslims heavy taxes and Emperor persecuted those who would not conform to Islamic law. He forbade Hindus from celebrating their festivals, ordered that only Muslims could be landlords of crown lands, dismissed all Hindu clerks and ordered governors to put a stop to the teachings and practicing of idolatrous forms of

Denied the freedom to follow their faith, the Hindus of Kashmir approached Guru Tegh Bahadur for help and guidance. The Hindu Brahmin Pandits of Kashmir were among the most highly learned and orthodox of the Hindu leadership. Aurangzeb felt if they could be converted, the rest of the country would easily follow. Given this ultimatum, a large delegation of 500 Kashmiri Pandits met the Guru and explained their dire predicament and requested him to intercede on their behalf.
When an anguished Guru Tegh Bahadur sought a way to help the suffering multitude, his son Guru Gobind Singh, as a nine-year-old, spoke words of encouragement, which energized him to pursue the path of wisdom. He told the Pandits to inform Aurangzeb that the Brahmins would gladly accept and embrace Islam if Guru Tegh Bahadur can be convinced to do so and made preparations to go to Delhi and sacrifice his life.

As soon as Aurangzeb heard the news he ordered the immediate arrest of the Guru. He ordered Guru Tegh Bahadur to be forced to convert to Islam through torture or be killed. Guru Tegh Bahadur refused to embrace Islam, saying

"For me, there is only one religion - of God - and whosoever belongs to it, be he a Hindu or a Muslim, him I own and he owns me. I neither convert others by force, nor submit to force, to change my faith."

Guru Tegh Bahadur was subjected to many cruelties; he was kept in an iron cage and starved for many days. The Guru faced a further test to his righteousness when three of his followers were tortured in his presence. Yet he remained steadfast and bore these cruelties without flinching or showing any anger or distress. He preferred the torture of the flesh to sacrificing the ideals of virtue. Finally on November 11, 1675 Guru Tegh
Bahadur was publicly beheaded as he prayed. The bodies of those so executed were usually quartered and exposed to public view, but Tegh Bahadur's followers managed to steal the body under cover of darkness, cremate it in Delhi , and bring the severed head to Tegh Bahadur's son Gobind Rai, 250 miles away in Anandpur. The last rites were performed in Anandpur Sahib by Guru Gobind Singh ji.

The site of Guru Tegh Bahadur jis execution was later turned into an important Gurudwara (Sikh House of Worship) Sisganj in Delhi, India . Millions of people of all social and religious backgrounds pay homage to the Guru at this shrine. He is honoured as a man who gave his life for religious freedom for all peoples, not just Sikhs. The shrine holds the symbolism of war against injustice, a determination to stand up to atrocity, though it may mean sacrifice of the self.
He taught the ethos of self-sacrifice for the common good of mankind and this is enshrined in his spiritual legacy.
 Never in history has the religious leader of one religion sacrificed his life to save the freedom of another religion .

"One untouched by avarice, attachment, egotism and pursuit of evil passions,
And one risen above joy and sorrow รข€" know such a one to be God's own image." 

Thus sang Guru Tegh Bahadur. Guru sacrificed his life for upholding the principle of freedom of conscience.

In today world, scarred by religious fanaticism and intolerance Guru Tegh Bahadur is truly a hero to be revered and emulated.

Mystic Saint Kabir in one of his verses says, "The true hero is one who in defence of the helpless may be hacked limb to limb, but flees not the field," and there can be no greater testimonial to the Guru's unflinching courage which earned him the praise as "one who covered dharma (religion) and protected it."

dinsdag 20 november 2012

Sakhi Series :- 206 ( Amazing Journey of Guru Tegh Bahadur's Sees from Delhi to Anandpur Sahib)

How Bhai Jaita took Guru Sahib's sees (head) back to Anandpur Sahib 

Based on "Guru Kian Sakhian" of Bhatt Svarup Singh Kaushish and Katha by Giani Pinderpal Singh ji

The aftermath of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's Shahidi and how Bhai Jaita took Guru Sahib's sees (head) back to Anandpur Sahib is not well known. It is an amazing story that is worth sharing. 

Early Life 
Bhai Jaita jee, later known as Bhai Jeevan Singh, was born in 1649 to a Sikh family once of the scavenger caste. Bhai Jaita and his brother Bhag Chand were Sikhs of Guru Har Rai Sahib. They began to live in Ramdas with Bhai Gurditta jee a very respected Gursikh who was a descendant of Baba Buddha jee. Bhai Gurditta jee was with Guru Harkrishan at the time of Guru jee's leaving this world and was later the one who performed the Guruship ceremony of Guru Tegh Bahadur. Before Guru Tegh Bahadur left for Delhi, he was called once again to perform the ceremony for Guru Gobind Rai jee. 

After Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib set out to court arrest, Bhai Gurditta jee also left for Delhi. Bhai Jaita followed him. At Delhi, Bhai Gurditta jee saw the brutal martyrdoms of the three Sikhs, one after another. So did Bhai Jaita. The day of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's martyrdom was now approaching. Bhai Jaita and Bhai Gurditta did not sleep the entire night. They prepared themselves for the sight they were about to see. Their beloved Satguru would be beheaded before them but they could not let their tears escape or utter any cry. They would have to be silent lest they be discovered and not be able to perform seva of Guru Sahib's body. They did Ardaas to Guru Tegh Bahadur that they be able to bear the sight of the horror that was to come and not utter a sound. 

Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's Shahidi 
Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib

The morning of November 11 1675 dawned. Guru Tegh Bahadur's small cage was brought to Chandani Chownk. There was a large tree that stood in the middle of the Chownk. The Chownk was a terrifying place this day. There were still the marks of the horrific tortures and Shahidis of Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala. Amongst the crowd assembled to see the execution was Bhai Jaita, hiding himself so no one could recognize that a Sikh of the Guru was present. 

It was mid-day now. There stood the Kazi, Abdul Wahabb and the executioner, Jalaludin. Jalaludin came forward and opened Guru Tegh Bahadur's cage. Satguru jee stepped out. The Kazi said to Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, "There is still time. Embrace Islam and you will be saved. Or you may show us a miracle and you will be rewarded with a great position. If neither of these are acceptable to you then you may choose death." 

Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib replied, "I want that which my Sikhs wanted. If my Sikhs did not falter then can you expect anything different from me?" 

Guru Tegh Bahadur was asked his final wish. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib replied that he should be allowed to do ishnaan. Guru Tegh Bahadur was allowed to bathe with water from a nearby well. He dressed in fresh clothes and sat under the large tree at the centre of the Chownk. Satguru jee closed his eyes and began to recite Sri Japji Sahib in a loud voice. Clouds began to form and it began to grow darker. The sky had a reddish glow now. As Guru Sahib recited Japji Sahib in his sweet voice, with every word, the Sikhs in the crowd realized the moment of his Shahidi was drawing closer. Satguru jee recited the final Salok and bowed his head before Akaal Purakh. There was an instant of silence and then Jalaludin, with both hid hands clenching the sharp sword, swung and severed Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head from his body. 

Streams of blood flowed on to the ground and the sky too was now blood red. A ferocious wind began to blow and the storm broke. As the heavy rain fell, the crowd dispersed. 

The Sikhs Gather 
The Sikhs who witnessed the Shahidi of Guru Tegh Bahadur gathered at house of Bhai Nainoo. Their grief knew no end. Bhai Tulsi insisted that they could not allow Satuguru Tegh Bahadur's body to simply lie in Chandani Chownk. They decided to ask Bhai Lakhi Das, a powerful trader for help. They went ot Bhai Lakhi Das's home where he had just returned from a trip to Narnaul to get lime and sand. The caravan carrying the goods Bhai Lakhi Das had purhcased was to arrive in Delhi that night and the Sikhs decided that they would hide in this caravan and take the bodies of the Sikhs and Guru jee from the Chownk. 

Taking Guru Sahib's Body 
It was now well into the night and the storm over Delhi was still raging. Bhai Nainoo, Bhai Ageya, Bhai Jaita and Bhai Udda traveled with the caravan carrying Bhai Lakhi Das's goods. They passed by the Red Fort and then the Kotwali and finally reached Chandani Chownk. Bhai Jaita jee, using the darkness and the cover of the storm, lifted up Guru Tegh Bahadur jee's head and covered it with a white scarf. 

Bhai Lakhi Das and his son Bhai Nagahiya were following in the caravan and as it slowly passed through the Chownk, they took the body of Guru Tegh Bahadur and placed it in a cart and kept moving. Bhai Lakhi Das thought the most inconspicuous way to cremate Guru Sahib's body would be to place it within his home and light the entire home on fire so know one would suspect what really was happening. This is what he did. As he and the other Sikhs stood outside, the flames from Bhai Lakhi Das's home lept into the sky and Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's body was cremated. Rakab Ganj – Where Guru Jee's body was cremated 

The next day, Bhai Gurditta jee also left this world, following his master Guru Tegh Bahadur. He was cremated by the banks of the Jamuna. Bhai Lakhi Das remained in Delhi for some days and managed through the help of the town crier to take away the bodies of the Shahid Sikhs and cremate them at the same place Bhai Gurditta was cremated. 

Bhai Jaita meanwhile was escaping with Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head. He decided that Guru Gobind Rai and the Sikhs would be waiting to have the final darshand and so he began to make his way towards Anandpur Sahib. Bhai Jaita clenched Satguru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head to his chest and did an Ardaas that he be blessed with the strength to return to Anandpur Sahib. The Mughals would be searching for the head and so he could not travel on the common roads. He would have to travel through the forests and jungles so he would not be detected. 

The First Night 
Bhai Jaita left Delhi and in his first night, covered 40 kilometers. He arrived in the town of Baghpat. 

The morning of November 12th was beginning to dawn and Bhai Jaita arrived near the Dargah of a Sufi saint, Sheikh Wahuddin. Wahuddin asked "Who are you?" Bhai Jaita declared, "I am a Sikh of Guru Tegh Bahadur." Wahuddin asked, "Where is your Guru now?" Bhai Jaita with tears in his eyes told the Sufi of Guru Sahib's martyrdom and revealed that he was carrying Guru Sahib's head back to Anandpur Sahib. Wahuddin was an admirer of Guru Tegh Bahadur and said he would help Bhai Jaita. He led Bhai Sahib to the house of Bhai Krishan Pal. Bhai Jaita had been running without stop all night and finally rested at Bhai Krishan Pal's home. 

Bhai Jaita jee tenderly uncovered Guru Sahib's head and saw that the cloth was covered in blood and so he took a fresh cloth and covered the head once again. 

The Second Day: Meeting a Devoted Sikh 
After a brief rest, Bhai Jaita left Baghpat and ran all day, arriving by nightfall at Taravari. Bhai Jaita was exhausted and wanted to rest for a few hours so he could once again set out at amrit vela. There was a large fort in the town and beside it a pond. The people would come there to wash their clothes and on side of the pond was a dense forest. Bhai Jaita decided to rest in the forest. As he trudged through the trees, a washerman who was still at pond and called out, "Who's there?!" Bhai Jaita heard the voice and something in him said that this voice sounded like that of a Sikh. He did not know why, but he trusted it. Bhai Jaita replied, "I am a Sikh of Guru Tegh Bahadur". The washerman exclaimed, "You are a Sikh and this town too has the home of a Sikh so why should you spend the night lying in the forest? Come with me beloved Sikh of the Satguru! I am a poor man with very little, but whatever I have you are welcome to share." 

Bhai Jaita stepped out from the trees, clutching Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head to his chest and began to walk with the washerman who introduced himself as Bhai Deva Ram. Bhai Deva Ram had picked up the clothes he had been washing and asked, "Is there any news of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib?" 

Bhai Jaita jee heard the question and kept walking silently. Bhai Deva Ram and Bhai Jaita arrived home and once again Bhai Deva Ram asked, "What news is there of Satguru jee?" It was dark now and Bhai Deva Ram lit some candles and asked his wife to prepare some food. He saw the bundle in Bhai Jaita's arms and asked, "What is in your bundle?" Bhai Jaita replied, "It is my treasure that I would not trade even for my life." Bhai Deva Ram offered, "give your bundle to us and rest. We shall take care of it till morning…" Bhai Jaita remained silent. 

Bhai Deva Ram saw the silence and decided to ask Bhai Jaita something else. He said, "When you meet Guru Tegh Bahadur please tell him that his poor Sikh, Deva Ram has sewn some clothing for him. May he bless us by stopping here some time to accept our offering." 

It was as if even after leaving his body, that Guru Tegh Bahadur was accepting the ardaas of his Sikhs. 

Bhai Jaita took the candle from Bhai Deva Ram and layer by layer began to uncover his bundle. The final fold had some blood on it and when he pulled it back, Bhai Deva Ram's eyes fell on Guru Tegh Bahadur jee's head. Bhai Jaita could not speak and sat to one side on the ground as Guru Sahib's head rested on the bed. 

Bhai Deva Ram began to weep and thought that he had asked for Guru Sahib's darshan but who knew it would come in this form? 

Bhai Jaita could eat very little. He told Bhia Deva Ram all that had happened. Bhai Deva Ram asked Bhai Jaita to rest and said he would do the seva of Guru Sahib's head. Bhai Deva Ram lovingly covered Guru Sahib's head in the new scarf he had prepared for Guru Sahib and wass going to offer. He took the rest of the clothes he had sewn and began to whisk them over Guru Sahib's head as a chaur. All night, Bhai Deva Ram did chaur of Guru Sahib's head and did not sleep for even an instant. 

Third Day 
At amrit vela, Bhai Jaita did ishnaan and then took up Guru Sahib's head. He saw that Bhai Deva Ram had covered it in the scarf he had said he wanted to offer. Tears formed in Bhai Sahib's eyes and he thought, "Guru Sahib, even now you take me where your Sikhs wait for your darshan…" 

It was now November 13th. Traveling through the jungles over rocks and thorns, Bhai Jaita arrived at sunset near the town of Ambala. There was a river flowing there and Bhai Jaita rested under a tree. Bhai Jaita asked a passerby if there was the home of a Sikh anywhere. He was told to go to nearby Kainth Majri. 

At Kainth Majri, Bhai Jaita met Bhai Ramdev. He told Bhai Ramdev that he was a Sikh and asked if he might rest somewhere. Bhai Ramdev took Bhai Jaita to his home. Once there, he asked Bhai Jaita what was in the bundle he was carrying. Once again, in the candlelight, Bhai Jaita uncovered Guru Sahib's head and Bhai Ramdev too fell to the ground. While Guru Sahib's head rested on the bed, Bhai Jaita and Bhai Ramdev remained the entire night on the ground. 

Fourth Day: Meeting a Fakir 
The next day, Bhai Jaita arrived at Nabha Sahib. Bhai Jaita hid in the bushes to rest but was noticed by a fakir, Dargahi Shah. Dargahi Shah asked Bhai Jaita who he was and Bhai Jaita replied, "A Sikh of Guru Tegh Bahadur". Dargahi Shah replied, "You are a Sikh and so why do you stay here? Come with me to my hut." 

Dargahi Shah who was a devotee of the Gurus, took Bhai Jaita to his home and there said to Bhai jee, "Oh Sikh, when you see Guru Tegh Bahadur be sure to tell him that this old man would like to have his darshan once before he dies." 

For the fourth time in his journey, Bhai Jaita uncovered Guru Sahib's head and said, "Baba, if you truly want Guru Sahib's darshan, then behold his divine head." The Fakir fell back and asked what had happened. Bhai Jaita told him of the Shahidi of Guru Tegh Bahadur. 

All night, Dargahi Shah stayed awake and gazed at Guru jee's head. At amrit vela, as Bhai Jaita asked to leave, Dargahi Shah took Guru Sahib's head in his arms and as he would normally see off his respected guest, began to walk with Bhai Jaita. After some distance, he gently handed the head back to Bhai Jaita and said, "Tell Guru Gobind Rai that this old fakir will only leave his body after having his darshan." Some years later, after the battle of Bhangani, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Jaita returned to meet this old fakir and only then did Dargahi Shah leave this world. 

Fifth Day: Reaching Kiratpur Sahib 
On November 14th, Bhai Jaita finally saw Kiratpur Sahib ahead of him. Kiratpur Sahib is not very far from Anandpur Sahib and is the holy place where Guru Hargobind Sahib and Guru Har Rai Sahib were cremated. Bhai Jaita wondered whether Guru Gobind Rai would want Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head to be cremated here as well. Bhai Jaita rested where today stands Gurdwara Bibangarh Sahib. 

Bhai Jaita had now been meet by other Sikhs and they sent a message to Guru Gobind Rai that his father's head had arrived at Kiratpur Sahib. As the sun set on November 14th, the message arrived at Anandpur Sahib. 

The Sikh carrying the message entered Guru Sahib's home and Mata Nanaki asked, "what is the news?" The Sikh could not speak. When Guru Gobind Rai appeared, the Sikh fell at his feet and told them that Bhai Jaita had brought Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head. Upon hearing the news, Guru Gobind Rai, Mata Nanaki jee, Mata Gujri jee, and the rest of the Sikh Sangat left Anandpur Sahib and took with them a palki (palanquin). 

Ranghreta Guru Ka Beta

The Sangat arrived at Kiratpur Sahib, singing Gurbani. Bhai Jaita was still holding Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head. He saw Guru Gobind Rai and placed the bundle before him and stepped back his eyes cast downwards. Guru Gobind Rai first uncovered Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head and had its darshan. He then took Mata Nanaki jee by the arm and said, "Grandmother, come and see your son's head." Mata jee tenderly kissed Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's forehead, smiled and said, "look, the glow on my beloved one's face is the same as it always was." 

Mata Gujri jee stepped forward, bowed and said, "Lord, you love (for the Divine) endured. May mine endure as well." 

Guru Gobind Rai jee called Bhai Jaita. Bhai Jaita, who had traveled for so many days, his body tired and battered by the long and treacherous journey, stepped forward. Guru Gobind Rai took Bhai Jaita in his arms and said "Ranghreta, Guru ka Beta". Meaning, "Ranghreta (one from the Ranghar tribe) is the Guru's own son." Bhai Jaita replied, "Satguru, give me the gift of Sikhi, bless me that I may remain yours. I only ask that the day I die, may I have your blessings." 

Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head was placed in the palki and carried by the Sangat to Anandpur Sahib where Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib stands today. Rosewater was brought and Guru Gobind Rai washed Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's head and asked Bhai Jaita to also join him. They then made the pyre of sandalwood and Guru Gobind Rai gave it the flame. 

After the Saskaar 
Guru Gobind Rai asked Bhai Jaita to tell him what he had seen and how Guru Tegh Bahadur had embraced martyrdom. After hearing the story, Guru Gobind Rai asked how many Sikhs were in the crowd that saw the martyrdom. Bhai Jaita replied that he did not know as it was hard to recognize them. Guru Gobind Rai declared that he would create such an image for Sikhs that they could be spotted in a crowd of thousands. 

At the place of Damadama Sahib at Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Rai arranged for the recitation of Guru Granth Sahib jee and Bhai Chaupat Rai (later Bhai Chaupa Singh) lovingly recited the saloks of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib. 

Bhai Jaita to Bhai Jeevan Singh 
Bhai Jaita jee began to live at Anandpur Sahib now. In 1691 he marred Bibi Raj Kaur and they had four sons. When Guru Gobind Rai established the Ranjit Nagara, Bhai Jaita jee was the first one given the duty to play it. Bhai Jaita became known as a great warrior and trained other Gursikhs as well. 

In 1699 when Guru Gobind Singh gave Khande ki Pahul, Bhai Jaita jee became Bhai Jeevan Singh. 

Shahidi of Bhai Jeevan Singh 
When Guru Gobind Singh and the Sikhs evacuated Anandpur Sahib, Bhai Jeevan Singh too accompanied Guru Sahib. Bhai Sahib's old mother Mata Prem Kaur was lost in the Sirsa. When Baba Ajeet Singh jee was surrounded by the Mughal army at the banks of the Sirsa, Bhai Jeevan Singh charged forward, his horse's reins in his mouth and a sword in each hand. With the kirpans in both hands, he cut through the encirclement and made a path for Baba Ajeet Singh to exit. 

The Bhatt Vehis say that Bhai Jeevan Singh kept traveling with Guru Sahib's caravan until Kotla Nihang Khan. Here, Bhai Jeevan Singh shot arrow after arrow and wreaked havoc on the Mughals. Finally, a bullet hit Bhai Sahib in the forehead and after bellowing "Sat Sri Akaal!" he fell to the ground and left his body, a beloved Sikh of the Guru till the end. 

Aftermath & History 
Sardar Baghel Singh

In 1783 Sardar Baghel Singh and the Sikh army conquered Delhi. The Nishan Sahib flew high over the Red Fort. Sardar Bagehl Singh had one desire, that the places associated with Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's be commemorated. 

He had an announcement made by the beat of a drum that if anyone knew where the exact place of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's martyrdom was, they should come to him. The old grand daughter of a water carrier came forward. She told Sardar Baghel Singh that when Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was beheaded, her grandfather was called to wash the place. She said that she was a little girl but she had seen the martyrdom of the Sikhs and Guru Sahib. They took her to Chandani Chownk and though she was almost blind and walked very slowly, she walked to the spot where Guru Sahib was martyred and said that Guru Sahib's blood had spilled at this place. Sardar Baghel Singh thanked her profusely and gave her family countless gifts. This is the place that Gurdwara Sis Ganj was established and even today can be seen. 
In total, with help of old Hindu, Muslim and Sikh residents of Delhi, Sardar Baghel Singh found and established Gurdwaras at seven historical places: 
1. Gurdwara Mata Sundri Ji at the place which was know as the Haveli Sardar Jawahar Singh. 
2. Gurdwara Bangla Sahib. A Mansion belonging to Raja Jai Singh existed there once. Guru Harkrishan Dev, the Eighth Guru had stayed there. 
3. Gurdwara Bala Sahib. Last rights of Guru Harkrishan, Mata Sundri and Mata Sahib Kaur were performed at this place. 
4. Gurdwara Rakab Ganj. The torso of Guru Tegh Bahadur was cremated here. 
5. Gurdwara Sees Ganj. Guru Tegh Bahadur was martyred at this place. 
6. Gurdwara Moti Bagh. Guru Gobind Singh sent a message to the Mughal King, Bahadur Shah, by shooting an arrow from this place. 
7. Gurdwara Majnu Tilla. It was established in the memory of a Sikh of Guru Nanak, named Majnu. Guru Hargobind stayed at this place on his way to Gwaliar.

dinsdag 13 november 2012

Indian-origin CEO of Datawind (Suneet Singh) and MIT professor among Forbes' top 15 education innovators list

Indian-origin CEO of Datawind (Suneet Singh) and MIT professor among Forbes' top 15 education innovators list

PTI Nov 10, 2012, 01.42PM IST 

NEW YORK: Indian-origin CEO of Datawind, the maker of India's low-cost tablet Aakash, Suneet Singh Tuli and Massachusettes Institute of Technology professor Anant Agarwal have been named by Forbes magazine among the 15 "classroom revolutionaries" who are using innovative technologies to reinvent education for students and teachers globally.

The Forbes list names 15 education innovators who are "harnessing a slew of disruptive technologies to change everything from the way we teach grade school math to how we train the next generation of teachers."

The publication said Tuli(44)) is the " mastermind" behind the world's cheapest tablet computer Aakash, "which has the potential to revolutionise educational access in the developing world."

Datawind has a backlog of "millions" of orders for the 35 dollar Aakash tablet. The publication quoted Tuli as saying that "I don't care about creating the iPad killer. I care about the 3 billion people who can afford this device."

Agarwal, 53, a professor of computer science at MIT is also the President of edX, the new combined online offerings of Harvard, MIT, the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Texas.

Over 400,000 are currently enrolled in the education programme. "We've created dramatic access to learning for students worldwide. By reinventing online learning, we can dramatically improve what we do on campus," Agarwal, who took over as head of edX in May this year, said.

"EdX continues to up the ante by increasing partners, classes (seven to dozens for spring 2013) and innovations, such as virtual laboratories," Forbes added.

Datawind had won the tender in 2010 to supply one lakh Aakash tablets for a price of around 49 dollars per unit. A new version of the tablet PC, featuring one Ghz processor, four-hour battery time, capacitive screen and Android 4.0 operating system, is expected to be launched in India on November 11.

Among the other education innovators on the list is Salman Khan, the Bangladeshi-American founder of Khan Academy, the revolutionary online education platform.

The 36 year old M.I.T. and Harvard alumnus has so far created 3,400 videos, mostly science and math tutorials, that have been watched by more than 200 million people. Khan Academy's YouTube channel has more than 400,000 subscribers.